Bachelor Thesis


The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is one of the main energy consumers in city buses. This is especially true for electric buses, as they do not have an abundant heat source. For this reason, bus manufacturers are trying to implement new concepts to save heating and cooling energy. The goal is to improve the Pareto front between thermal comfort and energy consumption. To find out how effective different measures are, a simulation is used based on yearround scenarios created with log data of the bus. A steady-state thermodynamic model of the city bus was developed including enclosure, cabin air, thermal comfort, heat pump, passengers, door openings, and solar irradiation.


Based on the results of my thesis my supervisor created a scientific paper and handed it in to the World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC World Congress 2023).


  • Model-based opimization
  • Thermal comfort
  • Design sensitivities
  • Pareto optimality

Awards & Mentions

  • Paper accepted from IFAC WC 2023